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World Alzheimer's Day (Sep 21 )

    • 5/5 (1 votes)
    By Sofi
    World Alzheimer's Day (Sep 21 )

    Alzheimer's disease causes brain changes that gradually get worse. It's the most common cause of dementia — a group of brain disorders that cause progressive loss of intellectual and social skills, severe enough to interfere with day-to-day life. In Alzheimer's disease, brain cells degenerate and die, causing a steady decline in memory and mental function.

    Current Alzheimer's disease medications and management strategies can temporarily improve symptoms, maximize function and maintain independence. It's also important to seek social services and tap into your support network to make life better. Research efforts aim to discover treatments that prevent Alzheimer's or slow its progression.

     AD is diagnosed in people over 65 years of age, although the less-prevalent early-onset Alzheimer's can occur much earlier. In 2006, there were 26.6 million sufferers worldwide. Alzheimer's is predicted to affect 1 in 85 people globally by 2050.





    Risk factors


    Increasing age is the greatest known risk factor for Alzheimer's. After you reach age 65, your risk of developing the disease doubles about every five years. Nearly half of those over age 85 have Alzheimer's.People with rare genetic changes that guarantee they'll develop Alzheimer's often begin experiencing symptoms in their 40s or 50s.

    Family history and genetics
    Your risk of developing Alzheimer's appears to be somewhat higher if a first-degree relative — your parent, sibling or child — has the disease.

    Women may be more likely than are men to develop Alzheimer's disease, in part because they live longer.

    Mild cognitive impairment
    People with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have memory problems or other symptoms of cognitive decline that are worse than might be expected for their age, but not severe enough to be diagnosed as dementia. Those with MCI have an increased risk — but not a certainty — of later developing dementia.

    Lifestyle and heart health

    the same factors that put you at risk of heart disease may also increase the chance that you'll develop Alzheimer's. Examples include:

    • Lack of exercise
    • Smoking
    • High blood pressure
    • High cholesterol
    • Poorly controlled diabetes

    These risk factors are also linked to vascular dementia, a type of cognitive decline caused by damaged blood vessels in the brain. Many people with cognitive decline have brain changes characteristic of both Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Some researchers think that each condition helps fuel the damage caused by the other.

    Lifelong learning and social engagement

    Factors that may reduce your risk of Alzheimer's include:

    • Higher levels of formal education
    • A stimulating job
    • Mentally challenging leisure activities, such as reading, playing games or playing a musical instrument
    • Frequent social interactions


     First symptoms of Alzheimer's disease you may notice are increasing forgetfulness and mild confusion. Over time, the disease has a growing impact on your memory, your ability to speak and write coherently, and your judgment and problem solving. If you have Alzheimer's, you may be the first to notice that you're having unusual difficulty remembering things and organizing your thoughts. Or you may not recognize that anything is wrong, even when changes are noticeable to your family members, close friends or co-workers.

    Brain changes associated with Alzheimer's disease lead to growing trouble with:

    Everyone has occasional memory lapses. It's normal to lose track of where you put your keys or forget the name of an acquaintance. But the memory loss associated with Alzheimer's disease persists and gets worse. People with Alzheimer's may:

    • Repeat statements and questions over and over
    • Forget conversations, appointments or events, and not remember them later
    • Routinely misplace possessions, often putting them in illogical locations
    • Eventually forget the names of family members and everyday objects

    Disorientation and misinterpreting spatial relationships
    People with Alzheimer's disease may lose their sense of what day it is, the time of year, where they are or even their current life circumstances. Alzheimer's may also disrupt your brain's ability to interpret what you see, making it difficult to understand your surroundings. Eventually, these problems may lead to getting lost in familiar places.

    Speaking and writing
    Those with Alzheimer's may have trouble finding the right words to identify objects, express thoughts or take part in conversations. Over time, the ability to read and write also declines.

    Thinking and reasoning
    Alzheimer's disease causes difficulty concentrating and thinking, especially about abstract concepts like numbers. Many people find it challenging to manage their finances, balance their checkbooks, and keep track of bills and pay them on time. These difficulties may progress to inability to recognize and deal with numbers.

    Making judgments and decisions
    Responding effectively to everyday problems, such as food burning on the stove or unexpected driving situations, becomes increasingly challenging.

    Planning and performing familiar tasks
    Once-routine activities that require sequential steps, such as planning and cooking a meal or playing a favorite game, become a struggle as the disease progresses. Eventually, people with advanced Alzheimer's may forget how to perform basic tasks such as dressing and bathing.

    Changes in personality and behavior
    Brain changes that occur in Alzheimer's disease can affect the way you act and how you feel. People with Alzheimer's may experience:

    • Depression
    • Anxiety
    • Social withdrawal
    • Mood swings
    • Distrust in others
    • Increased stubbornness
    • Irritability and aggressiveness
    • Changes in sleeping habits
    • Wandering


    Scientists believe that for most people, Alzheimer's disease results from a combination of genetic, lifestyle and environmental factors that affect the brain over time.

    Less than 5 percent of the time, Alzheimer's is caused by specific genetic changes that guarantee a person will develop the disease.

    While the causes of Alzheimer's are not yet fully understood, its effect on the brain is clear. Alzheimer's disease damages and kills brain cells. A brain affected by Alzheimer's disease has many fewer cells and many fewer connections among surviving cells than does a healthy brain.

    As more and more brain cells die, Alzheimer's leads to significant brain shrinkage. When doctors examine Alzheimer's brain tissue under the microscope, they see two types of abnormalities that are considered hallmarks of the disease:

    • Plaques. These clumps of a protein called beta-amyloid may damage and destroy brain cells in several ways, including interfering with cell-to-cell communication. Although the ultimate cause of brain-cell death in Alzheimer's isn't known, abnormal processing of beta-amyloid is a prime suspect.
    • Tangles. Brain cells depend on an internal support and transport system to carry nutrients and other essential materials throughout their long extensions. This system requires the normal structure and functioning of a protein called tau. In Alzheimer's, threads of tau protein twist into abnormal tangles, leading to failure of the transport system. This failure is also strongly implicated in the decline and death of brain cells.


    Memory loss, impaired judgment and other cognitive changes caused by Alzheimer's can complicate treatment for other health conditions. A person with Alzheimer's disease may not be able to:

    • Communicate that he or she is experiencing pain — for example, from a dental problem
    • Report symptoms of another illness
    • Follow a prescribed treatment plan
    • Notice or describe medication side effects

    As Alzheimer's disease progresses, brain changes begin to affect physical functions such as swallowing, balance, and bowel and bladder control. These effects can increase vulnerability to additional health problems such as:

    • Pneumonia and other infections. Difficulty swallowing may cause people with Alzheimer's to inhale (aspirate) food or liquid into their airways and lungs, which can lead to pneumonia. Inability to control emptying of the bladder (urinary incontinence) may require placement of a tube to drain and collect urine (urinary catheter). Having a catheter increases your risk of urinary tract infections, which can lead to more-serious, life-threatening infections.
    • Injuries from falls. People with Alzheimer's become increasingly vulnerable to falling. Falls can lead to fractures. In addition, falls are a common cause of serious head injuries, such as concussion or bleeding in the brain.

    So please take care the old one and who suffers from this diseases. "OLD IS GOLD" so dont avoid the old people like an unwanted thing. We can cure this diseses if we have good prevention and good care... Smile





    5/5 (1 votes)
    5/5 (1 votes)